What is Melasma?
Melasma is one of the most common type of brownish pigmentation. It is more common in Females than Male. Melasma is also termed as “Mask of Pregnancy” as most of the female tend to get it during pregnancy due to effect of hormones.
Melasma is commonly seen on the central part of Face – nose, forehead, and cheeks.Sometime it may also involve chin and upper lip area.
Who get Melasma?
Melasma most commonly seen in people having tendency to tan very easily, typically between 20 to 40 years of age. Most of them have familial tendencies or genetic history to develop pigmentation.
What are the causes of melasma?
Family History- If anybody from paternal or maternal side has problem of melasma, these type of individuals are more likely to get.
Unprotected Sunexposure:- Repeated sun-exposure with sun-protection can stimulate our skin melanocytes to produce more melanin pigment, which can lead to Melasma.
Pregnancy:- During pregnancy high level of oestrogen, female who were on oral contraceptive pills containing oestrogen and progesterone can trigger excess melanin synthesis under the skin, which can cause melasma.
What are the different types of melasma?
Melasma can be superficial [Epidermal], Deep [Dermal] or of Mixed type [Involving both epidermis and Dermis]
A thorough analysis, case history and woods lamp examination helps to understand the depth of melasma.
What is the best treatment for Melasma?
First and very important treatment regime involves use of broad spectrum sunscreen in right quantity.
Certain topical creams containing Kojic acid, Tranexamic acid, Azelic Acid, Glycolic acid, hydroquinone, Glutathione, vitamin C serums and so on.
As we have now understood, Melasma can be superficial and deep, hence treatment should have combined approach. Along with oral and topical medicines certain procedural line of treatments like chemical peel, intralesional tranexamic acid, and Laser and light therapies can also be combined to give better results.